Jun 26, 2020 | Featured Web Article

Natural Bird Feeding: What Do Birds Want?

A male northern cardinal perches in an apple tree.

How would you like to feed birds in the very best way possible—in a way that is all natural, environmentally sustainable, inexpensive, and easy to do? Is that something you might be interested in? If so, get out the garden gloves and the garden trowel and leave the bird feeders and seed alone for a minute. The very best way to feed birds is to offer them the kinds of foods they would find and consume in nature and that starts with offering bird-friendly plants.

If you haven't already guessed it, the bird-friendly plants are those that birds use for food, shelter, or nesting. The most successful bird-attracting backyards are the ones that feature a well-rounded selection of bird-friendly plants in addition to feeders, birdbaths, and nest boxes. In most cases, it will be the plants that will first catch the attention of a passing bird.

Bird-friendly Plants Overview

Nearly all plantlife has something to offer to birds and wildlife. But some plants are more bird-friendly than others, meaning they meet the essential needs of birds on a variety of levels. Here are some general groupings into which we can lump bird-friendly plants.

Please note that it's always best to use native plant species in your bird gardening. In fact, some studies have shown that the presence of native plants may improve the survival rate of baby birds. Check the plant species name with a reliable resource before you add it to your garden.

Amaranthus flowers, photo by Hardyplants/Wikimedia.


Annuals are plants that have a one-year life cycle. They sprout from seed, produce flowers, ripen their seeds, and then die. This cycle normally runs from spring through fall—essentially one growing season.

Bird-friendly annuals include amaranthus, coreopsis, and sunflowers.

A female ruby-throated hummingbird sips at coneflower. Photo by Jacqueline Hirst.


Perennials are plants that live for more than two years. They bloom and grow for a season, then die back. The following growing season, they reemerge from their root stock, rather than regerminating from seed as annual plants do.

Bird-friendly perennials include asters, black-eyed Susans, goldenrods, coneflowers, and grasses such as little bluestem.

Viburnum fruit. Photo by Anastasiya Mam/Wikimedia


Shrubs are a very general category of broad-leaved plants that have small, tightly grouped branches and thick foliage. They are basically short, leafy trees. Shrubs are excellent sources of shelter and nesting sites, as well as foraging sites, for birds.

Shrubs that are very attractive to birds include: sumacs, elderberries, and viburnums.

An eastern bluebird picks berries from a backyard holly bush. Photo by Frances Burton.

Small Trees

Small trees are differentiated from shrubs by their form and growth pattern. Shrubs have multiple branches growing up from the soil. Small trees tend to have a single trunk, which then divides into branches and then foliage at some height above the soil. While they may not offer the shelter that thickly vegetated shrubs do, small trees are excellent sources of food for foraging birds.

Bird-friendly small trees include hollies, serviceberry, and dogwoods.

A cedar waxwing visits a flowering tree. Photo Autumn.

Fruiting Trees and Shrubs

Fruits produced by plants come in a variety of forms. There's the stereotypical fruit, such as apple or a cherry—colorful, edible flesh surrounding a seed or seeds. But did you know that the samaras (seeds that look like helicopter rotors) of maple trees, the acorns of oaks, and the walnut are also considered fruits? It's true. I don't want to get too deep into proper application of botanical terminology. Let's just say that the most bird-friendly trees and shrubs are the ones that not only provide some sort of shelter and protected site for nesting but also offer the birds something to eat in the way of fruits, nuts, sap, tender buds, or the insects and other prey items that may live on or in them.

Bird-friendly fruiting trees and shrubs include blueberries, cherries, crabapples, hawthorns, mountain ashes, spicebush, sassafras, and black gum.

These groupings and the species listed under each are a small fraction of the bird-friendly plant options available to you. North America is a huge continent with a range of ecoregions and growing zones. The best bird-friendly plants for your region, climate, soil, and bird habitat plans will be very different from those of your friend who lives on the opposite side of the continent. For this reason, it's important that you get expert advice specific to your region in order to enjoy maximum bird-attracting success.

Audubon offers a Native Plant Database that recommends the best plants for your region and the birds each plant attracts. Just enter your zip code to get a list of plants that naturally grow well where you live—and attract birds.

About Bill Thompson, III

Bill Thompson, III, was the team captain for Watching Backyard Birds from its inception 23 years ago through his death on March 25, 2019. So much of what he wrote is timeless and remains informative, helpful, and inspiring.

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  • How long do other seeds stay fresk? Sunflower seeds? Millet? Safflower?
    by Sue, Sat, 06 Feb 2021
  • I understand that the ducks' blood vessel arrangement in their feet is to provide the benefits of the counter-current heat exchanger mechanism; returning cold venous blood from the feet is warmed by the descending warm arterial blood, preventing excess heat loss by the feet and avoiding cold blood from chilling the body. This means that the feet are cold, not warm.
    by Frank Barch, Sat, 02 Jan 2021
  • I have the same situation. The feeder is attached to the middle of a large picture window that goes ceiling to floor w/ no ledge or sill for animals to climb or balance. Yet every morning all the sunflower seeds have been cracked open and hulls left. Any ideas what it is?
    by Liza Fox, Sun, 15 Nov 2020
  • I have a bird feeder that sticks to my window and I've been hearing noises against the window at night right now its going on. But whatever it is it is aware of me. And when I get to window it leaves.I can't imagine a squirrel or mouse or possom being able to get at it. ...So as I was reading this article im to assume no bird eats at night. Or no birds will eat at night. Why is that? Then im also thinking of a sinereo that could a lost confused bird eat at night. This eating thing is watching meI turn out the light go there noise dissappears..Thank you.
    by Nosferatu, Thu, 05 Nov 2020
  • I have metal baffles (cones) on my pole for my bird feeders. Something is still tempting them at night. What else could it be? Deer???
    by Ella Spencer Connolly, Thu, 27 Aug 2020