Jul 24, 2019 | Featured in: Watching Backyard Birds, August 2016

Water Features 101

Birdbaths—especially ones with moving water—are a great way to attract birds.

Throughout North America, August usually brings the driest weather of the year. Natural water sources for drinking and bathing can be few and far between, so by providing a birdbath or other water feature, you'll help the birds get through the dog days, and you will likely be rewarded by attracting species that don't visit your feeding station.

Water features can range from free and simple (an old pie pan) to elaborate and expensive (an artificial creek with a waterfall or interconnected recirculating ponds with a fountain). Small birds need shallow water for bathing; even a pie pan or birdbath full of water can be too deep. An irregular, sloping rock placed in the bowl can provide a range of depths for a variety of bird species. A layer of pebbles at the bottom of the pool can add traction for birds that are accustomed to perching on twigs, not walking on smooth ground.

A birdbath that appears to be part of the natural landscape will draw the attention of birds faster than something that looks foreign to them, another reason to add rocks or gravel to your birdbath or fountain. Thanks to its liquid nature and gravity, water tends to occur naturally in low spots, so birdbaths close to the ground are likely to be more popular than those on a pedestal. On the ground, they might attract other wildlife, too, including rabbits, raccoons, toads, and turtles.

Safety is always an issue for bathing birds, so your water feature will be more attractive if it offers the cover of a shrub or tree nearby. In general, a shady spot is best for a water feature to keep the temperature comfortably cool during the hottest part of the day.

Moving Water

Birds love moving water, and moving water deters mosquitoes. A mister attached to a garden hose can attract hummingbirds and warblers for a cool shower on a hot day. Drippers make a splash, and some can be set to drip at one gallon per hour or less, so if used only during the hottest hours of the day, you may not notice it on your water bill. Ideally, a mister or dripper would be installed above a recirculating fountain or pond, so no water would be wasted. Recirculating waterfalls (designed for outdoor use) and pond fountains can be attractive to humans and birds, but unless solar powered, entail an electric outlet nearby or an extension cord suitable for outdoor use.

The Water Wiggler is a gadget intended for use in a birdbath to make the water surface ripple, which is sufficient to attract birds. It can be powered by conventional batteries for use in the shade or sun, or by solar power for use in direct sunlight.

Solar-powered fountains are designed for use in a birdbath, but require direct sunlight, which can result in warm water, especially in the late afternoon. In the morning, birds flock to my birdbath and its solar-powered fountain, but not so much on a hot afternoon. So, I also provide a cracked old ceramic pie pan, lined with gravel, in a shady spot beneath a dogwood tree.


Whether your water feature is a simple dish of water or an elaborate recirculating pond, water naturally gets dirty. Algae will grow on all surfaces. Instructions for maintaining an artificial creek or pond are too complicated and specific to include here, but for small, relatively simple water features, replace the water every day or two in hot weather, and scrub the surfaces with a brush, rag, or sponge. If you use bleach, be sure to rinse thoroughly afterward. By using the food, water, nest boxes, and landscaping we provide for them, birds show their appreciation. We benefit by getting a closer look at them and watching their antics, but also by knowing we are making their lives easier.

About Dawn Hewitt

Dawn Hewitt is the editor at Watching Backyard Birds and Bird Watcher's Digest. She has been watching birds since 1978, and wrote a weekly birding column for The Herald-Times, a daily newspaper in Bloomington, Indiana, for 11 years.

New On This Site

The Latest Comments

  • I am excited to have my daughter’s tree this year, since my landlord has removed the lovely yew next to my patio, which was the only shelter for birds at my feeder.
    by pmalcpoet, Mon, 20 Dec 2021
  • Goldfinches will continue as long as Swiss chard is available. I'm watching one eating chard right now (mid-November in Vermont).
    by Brian Tremback, Sun, 14 Nov 2021
  • Birds are on the decline though sunflowers are rarely touched and for weeks hardly .eaten. I'll try a few sparing nuts on the table and a fat ball broken for jackdaws and tits but mealworms were a summer favourite being my go to choice
    by Paul Harabaras, Thu, 04 Nov 2021
  • I’ve been enjoying goldfinches eating coneflower/ echinacea seeds in my new pollinator garden! I will leave the plants out all winter for them if the seeds keep that long? Or should I deadhead and put them in a dry area? Im in CT and thought they migrated, but didn’t know they put in winter coats! What do they eat in winter without bird feeders?
    by Anne Sheffield, Sat, 04 Sep 2021
  • Hi Gary, I will pass your question along to Birdsquatch next time I see him. He knows infinitely more about nocturnal wildlife than I do. Where do you live? That's pretty important in figuring out the answer. But the thief could be raccoons, deer, or flying squirrels. Do you live in the woods? Are there trees near your feeder, or must the culprit climb a shepherd's hook or pole? Dawn Hewitt, Watching Backyard Birds
    by Dawn Hewitt, Mon, 30 Aug 2021